;name: hammingcode.asm
;build: nasm -felf64 -o hammingcode.o hammingcode.asm
;       ld hammingcode.o -o hammingcode
;description: shows the 7,4 and 8,4 hammingcode of a given 4 bits dataword
;more info: http://users.cis.fiu.edu/~downeyt/cop3402/hamming.html

bits 64

[list -]
    %include "unistd.inc"
[list +]

;The programs fixed values,first 4 bits are ignored in the generation of the Hammingcode word
;and the checkbits are cleared.  Also bit 7 isn't used in the Hammingcode word because we can
;only have 3 checkbits for 4 bits data.
;The bit on position 7 is the paritybit for the entire Hammingcode.
;Hammingcode words count the bits from left to right and starting with 1.

    %define DATALENGTH       4
    ; we only can store 4 bits in AL
    %define BITSTOIGNORE     4

section .bss

    bitBuffer:      resb    1
    hammingcode:    resb    1
section .data
    databits:   db  00001011b
    title:      db  "Hammingcode demo by Agguro - 2012",10,"Databits       : "
    .len:       equ $-title
    hamming74:  db  10,"Hamming(7,4)   : "
    .len:       equ $-hamming74
    hamming84:  db  10,"hamming(8,4)   : "
    .len:       equ $-hamming84
    endofline:  db  10
    .len:       equ $-endofline
section .text

global _start    

;Setup of the databits on positions 1,2 and 4 for Hamming(7,4) parity bits
;Here we prepare the hammingcode WITHOUT the paritybits,we only provide the
;room for it,to calculate and store later.

    mov     al,byte [databits]
    shl     al,BITSTOIGNORE         ;shift significant bits to upper bits of AL
    mov     cl,1                    ;start at position 1
    xor     bl,bl                   ;processed bits to 0
    clc                             ;clear carrybit
    rcl     ah,1                    ;shift carrybit into AH
    push    rcx                     ;save current position
; process current group of databits depending the position
; for position CL,store CL bits,skip CL bits

    dec     cl                      ;bits to process = position - 1
    cmp     cl,0                    ;is number of bits to process 0 ?
    jne     .process                ;no,process the bit
    pop     rcx                     ;restore position
    shl     cl,1                    ;new position = old position x 2
    jmp     prepare.bitgroup        ;process next set of bits for this position    
    shl     ax,1                    ;no,shift relevant bits into ah
    inc     bl                      ;increment processed bits
    cmp     bl,DATALENGTH           ;processed bits < number of databits?
    jge     .done                   ;no,last bit has been processed,stop procedure
    jmp     prepare.bit             ;yes,process next bit
    shr     ax,7                    ;adjust bitgroup

; Calculation of the Hammingcode
; ------------------------------
; AL contains the databits with room for the checkbits in the following format
; 00d0dddx    where 0: Hamming(7,4) parity bit,
;                   d: databit,
;                   x: Hamming(8,4,4) paritybit 
    xor     rcx,rcx
    mov     rdx,rax                 ;DX will be the Hammingcode with paritybits
    mov     cl,1
    push    rax
    push    rcx
    dec     cl
    shl     al,cl                   ;shift left bits in place
    pop     rcx
    shl     ax,cl
    shl     al,cl
    cmp     al,0
    jnz     .repeat
    ; determine the paritybit
    clc                             ;assume parity even
    test    ah,ah
    jpe     .parityEven
    stc                             ;set carryflag indicating that parity is odd
    push    rcx                     ;save position
    rcl     dh,1                    ;shift carry into DH
    shl     dl,1                    ;shift DL one position,eliminating palceholder
    dec     rcx                     ;adjust the data (by left shifting CL by 1 bit)
    shl     dx ,cl                  ;adjust data,most left bit of DL is now paritybitposition
    pop     rcx                     ;restore position     
    ; the paritybit is calculated and put in place,continue calculation
    pop     rax
    shl     cl,1                    ;next position
    cmp     cl,4
    jle     .nextPosition    
    ; at this point no more bitsets are left so the calculation of the Hammingcode is finished
    ; we just need top calculate the paritybit of the entire hammingcode to transform the Hamming(7,4) in DH to a 
    ; Hamming(8,4) in AL.
    clc                             ;assume parity even
    mov     al,dh                   ;move DH into AL
    test    al,al                   ;test parity
    jpe     .done                   ;parity is even,so no carry
    stc                             ;set carry indicating odd parity
    rcl     al,1                    ;shift carrybit into lowest bit of AL
    mov     byte [hammingcode],al   ;save the result
; Finally we have the Hamming(8,4) code of our 4 bit databits

    mov     rsi,title
    mov     rdx,title.len
    call    write
    mov     al,byte [databits]
    shl     al,4
    mov     cl,4
    call    write.bits
    mov     rsi,hamming74
    mov     rdx,hamming74.len
    call    write
    mov     al,byte [hammingcode]
    mov     cl,7
    call    write.bits
    mov     rsi,hamming84
    mov     rdx,hamming84.len
    call    write    
    mov     al,byte [hammingcode]
    mov     cl,8
    call    write.bits
    mov     rsi,endofline
    mov     rdx,endofline.len
    call    write
    syscall exit,0

; Write
; Write a string pointed by RSI with length RDX to STDOUT
    push    rax
    push    rcx
    syscall write,stdout
    pop     rcx
    pop     rax

; WriteBits
; Converts and writes a dataword in AL as ASCII binary with length RCX to STDOUT
    mov     rsi,bitBuffer
    rcl     al,1
    adc     byte [rsi],"0"
    mov     rdx,1
    call    write
    mov     byte [rsi],0
    loop    .repeat